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Ukázkový test z angličtiny pro uchazeče o magisterské studium sociologie



Questions 1 - 8; READING PASSAGE 1

From: Interview – Zygmunt Bauman on the UK Riots http://www.social-europe.eu/2011/08/interview-zygmunt-bauman-on-the-uk-riots/


  • Questions 1 - 5; 2 points per each correct answer

How much of an irony is the fact that the riots concentrated on the looting of consumer goods, given your body of work on postmodernism and consumerism?


These riots were, so to speak, an explosion bound sooner or later to happen… Just like a minefield: one knows that some of the explosives will – true to their nature – sooner or later explode, but one doesn’t know where and when. In the case of a social minefield however, an explosion is likely to spread instantaneously, thanks to contemporary technology transmitting information in “real time” and prompting the “copy-cat” effect. This particular social minefield has been created by the combination of consumerism with rising inequality. This was not a rebellion or an uprising of famished and impoverished people or an oppressed ethnic or religious minority – but a mutiny of defective and disqualified consumers. We have been all coerced and seduced to view shopping as the recipe for the good life and the principal solution of all life problems – but then a large part of the population has been prevented from using that recipe… City riots in Britain are best understood as a revolt of frustrated consumers.



Are the following statements True, False, or Not Given, in other words, do they agree with the information given in the reading passage above?


[1] Social revolutions are focused and targeted affairs.


[2] Present-day technology facilitates immediate spread of information and also encourages others to follow.


[3] Coercive and seductive consumerism can only result in rising inequality.


[4] Socially disadvantaged people feel offended and humiliated by the display of goods they cannot afford.


[5] Shopping today is seen as the formula for good life and the main way how to solve our problems.



  • Questions 6 - 8; 2 points per each correct answer

While talking to youths from poorer backgrounds, there is clear resentment over the lack of opportunities in education and work, but we have seen no universities burned, for example. Can we assume there is much more symbology in burning down a Dixon’s branch?


Whatever else those youngsters may say when pressed to explain why they are angry (mostly repeating the explanations they heard on TV and read in the papers…) the fact is that when looting and burning shops they did not attempt to “change society” – replace the present order with another, more humane and more hospitable to decent and dignified life; they did not rebel against consumerism – but made a (misguided and doomed) attempt to join, if only for a fleeting moment, the ranks of consumers from which they have been excluded. Their mutiny was an un-planned, un-integrated, spontaneous explosion of accumulated frustration that can be only explained in terms of “because of”, not in terms of “in order to”; I doubt whether the question of “what for” played any role in that orgy of destruction.

[6] Choose the option which best completes the sentence in agreement with the text above.


By looting and burning shops those youngsters...


A) rebelled against consumerism.


B) tried to change doomed and misguided social order.


C) attempted to bring about social order that would be less inhumane and hostile.


D) wanted, at least for a short while, join in the strata of customers they were excluded from.


E) demonstrated their strong feeling of disapproval and aversion towards decent and hospitable life.

nnn


How culpable are the public policies that created the council estates now described as pockets of apartheid?

Successive British governments stopped building “council estates” a long time ago. They left the spatial distribution of population, complete with its troubles and problems, entirely to market forces. Condensations of disprivileged and deprived people in certain areas of the city, not much differently from the case of the favelas, is not guided by social policies, but by the price of housing, while being aided and abetted by the tendency of the better-off sections of urban dwellers to lock themselves up, away from city troubles, in so called “gated communities”. Segregation and polarization in the cities is today the result of a free and politically uncontrolled play of market forces; if state policy makes its contribution, then it is only in the form of governmental refusal to be bothered with the responsibility for human welfare and its decision to “contract it out” to private capital.


[7] Choose the option which best completes the sentence in agreement with the text above.


Condensations of disprivileged and deprived people in certain areas of the city, not much differently from the case of the favelas (=shanty towns in Brazil),...


A) is a result of bad social policies of successive British governments


B) has been caused by nothing else but the price of housing


C) are due to be aided and abetted


D) creates locked-in areas of impoverished urban dwellers, so called “gated communities”


E) is contributed to by the trend of wealthier citizens to lock themselves up in the so called “gated communities”



Last but not least, and with a nod to the ”New Statesman’s” famous question: given that consumerism is so ingrained in post-modern society, are we all doomed?


A few months ago François Flahaut published a remarkable study of the idea of common good and the realities for which it stands (O? est passé le bien commun ?, Éditions Mille et une nuits, 2011). The major message of the new study, focused on the current shape of our radically “individualized” society, is that the idea of human rights is currently utilized to replace and eliminate the concept of “good politics” – whereas that idea, to be realistic, cannot but be founded on the idea of “common good”. Human coexistence and social life constitute common grounds to us all from which and thanks to which all cultural and social goods derive. Pursuit of happiness should for that reason focus on the promotion of experiences, institutions and other cultural and natural realities of life-in-common – instead of concentrating on indices of wealth, which tends to deform human togetherness into individual competitiveness and rivalry.


[8] Choose the option which best completes the sentence in agreement with the text above.


In his remarkable study O? est passé le bien commun?, François Flahaut


A) focuses on the promotion of experiences, institutions and other cultural and natural realities of life-in-common


B) suggests the concept of “good politics” is currently tending to be replaced and eliminated by the idea of human rights.


C) fails to concentrate on indices of wealth, which tends to deform human togetherness into individual competitiveness and rivalry


D) denies it is impossible to found the idea human rights on the idea of the “common good”


E) regards cultural and social goods as constitutional rights



Questions 9 – 19; READING PASSAGE 2

From: Societies Without Nuclear Families http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/2?cid=



  • Questions 9 - 16; 1 point per each correct answer

Although many preindustrial societies [9]….. nuclear families, a few societies studied by anthropologists have not had them. One of these was the Nayar in southwestern India, who [10]….. marriage and the nuclear family. A woman would have several sexual partners during her [11]….., but any man with whom she had children had no [12]….. toward them.

Despite the absence of a father, this type of family arrangement [13]….. to have worked well for the Nayar. Nuclear families are also mostly absent [14]….. many people in the West Indies. When a woman and man have a child, the mother takes [15]….. of the child almost entirely; the father [16]….. for the household but usually lives elsewhere.

nnn


[9] A) caring B) common C) featured D) most E) strong

[10] A) both B) aware of C) equal D) lacked E) unknown

[11] A) occurrence B) lifetime C)previous D) spouse E) practise

[12] A) awareness B) implied C) empowerment D) responsibilities E) sharing

[13] A) appear B) might C) possible D) scenario E) seems

[14] A) among B) issue C) matrimonial D) while E) yet

[15] A) beneficiary B) care C) strides D) superior E) victimise

[16] A) dwelling B) efforts C) important D) provides E) resides


  • Questions 17 - 19; 2 points per each correct answer

These examples do not invalidate the fact that nuclear families are almost universal and important for several reasons we explore shortly. But they do [17]…. can be achieved through other family arrangements. If that is true, perhaps the oft-cited concern over the “breakdown” of the 1950s-style nuclear family in modern America is at least somewhat undeserved. As indicated by the examples just given, children can and do [18]….. . To say this is meant neither to extol divorce, births out of wedlock, and fatherless families nor to minimize the problems they may involve. Rather it is meant simply to indicate that the nuclear family is [19]…..

nnn

A) expect to outlive at least one of their parents and thus essentially were


B) indicate that the functions of the nuclear family


C) in practice they are something of a historical rarity


D) not the only viable form of family organization


E) thrive without two parents

nnn

nnn

Answer key


1NG, 2T, 3F, 4T, 5T;


6D, 7E, 8B;


9C, 10D, 11B, 12D, 13E, 14A, 15B, 16D;


17B, 18E, 19D


Societies Without Nuclear Families


Although many preindustrial societies featured nuclear families, a few societies studied by anthropologists have not had them. One of these was the Nayar in southwestern India, who lacked marriage and the nuclear family. A woman would have several sexual partners during her lifetime, but any man with whom she had children had no responsibilities toward them. Despite the absence of a father, this type of family arrangement seems to have worked well for the Nayar (Fuller, 1976). Nuclear families are also mostly absent among many people in the West Indies. When a woman and man have a child, the mother takes care of the child almost entirely; the father provides for the household but usually lives elsewhere. As with the Nayar, this fatherless arrangement seems to have worked well in the parts of the West Indies where it is practiced (Smith, 1996).


These examples do not invalidate the fact that nuclear families are almost universal and important for several reasons we explore shortly. But they do indicate that the functions of the nuclear family can be achieved through other family arrangements. If that is true, perhaps the oft-cited concern over the “breakdown” of the 1950s-style nuclear family in modern America is at least somewhat undeserved. As indicated by the examples just given, children can and do thrive without two parents. To say this is meant neither to extol divorce, births out of wedlock, and fatherless families nor to minimize the problems they may involve. Rather it is meant simply to indicate that the nuclear family is not the only viable form of family organization (Eshleman & Bulcroft, 2010).











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Ukázkový test z angličtiny pro uchazeče o magisterské studium sociologie



Questions 1 - 8; READING PASSAGE 1

From: Interview – Zygmunt Bauman on the UK Riots http://www.social-europe.eu/2011/08/interview-zygmunt-bauman-on-the-uk-riots/


  • Questions 1 - 5; 2 points per each correct answer

How much of an irony is the fact that the riots concentrated on the looting of consumer goods, given your body of work on postmodernism and consumerism?


These riots were, so to speak, an explosion bound sooner or later to happen… Just like a minefield: one knows that some of the explosives will – true to their nature – sooner or later explode, but one doesn’t know where and when. In the case of a social minefield however, an explosion is likely to spread instantaneously, thanks to contemporary technology transmitting information in “real time” and prompting the “copy-cat” effect. This particular social minefield has been created by the combination of consumerism with rising inequality. This was not a rebellion or an uprising of famished and impoverished people or an oppressed ethnic or religious minority – but a mutiny of defective and disqualified consumers. We have been all coerced and seduced to view shopping as the recipe for the good life and the principal solution of all life problems – but then a large part of the population has been prevented from using that recipe… City riots in Britain are best understood as a revolt of frustrated consumers.



Are the following statements True, False, or Not Given, in other words, do they agree with the information given in the reading passage above?


[1] Social revolutions are focused and targeted affairs.


[2] Present-day technology facilitates immediate spread of information and also encourages others to follow.


[3] Coercive and seductive consumerism can only result in rising inequality.


[4] Socially disadvantaged people feel offended and humiliated by the display of goods they cannot afford.


[5] Shopping today is seen as the formula for good life and the main way how to solve our problems.



  • Questions 6 - 8; 2 points per each correct answer

While talking to youths from poorer backgrounds, there is clear resentment over the lack of opportunities in education and work, but we have seen no universities burned, for example. Can we assume there is much more symbology in burning down a Dixon’s branch?


Whatever else those youngsters may say when pressed to explain why they are angry (mostly repeating the explanations they heard on TV and read in the papers…) the fact is that when looting and burning shops they did not attempt to “change society” – replace the present order with another, more humane and more hospitable to decent and dignified life; they did not rebel against consumerism – but made a (misguided and doomed) attempt to join, if only for a fleeting moment, the ranks of consumers from which they have been excluded. Their mutiny was an un-planned, un-integrated, spontaneous explosion of accumulated frustration that can be only explained in terms of “because of”, not in terms of “in order to”; I doubt whether the question of “what for” played any role in that orgy of destruction.

[6] Choose the option which best completes the sentence in agreement with the text above.


By looting and burning shops those youngsters...


A) rebelled against consumerism.


B) tried to change doomed and misguided social order.


C) attempted to bring about social order that would be less inhumane and hostile.


D) wanted, at least for a short while, join in the strata of customers they were excluded from.


E) demonstrated their strong feeling of disapproval and aversion towards decent and hospitable life.

nnn


How culpable are the public policies that created the council estates now described as pockets of apartheid?

Successive British governments stopped building “council estates” a long time ago. They left the spatial distribution of population, complete with its troubles and problems, entirely to market forces. Condensations of disprivileged and deprived people in certain areas of the city, not much differently from the case of the favelas, is not guided by social policies, but by the price of housing, while being aided and abetted by the tendency of the better-off sections of urban dwellers to lock themselves up, away from city troubles, in so called “gated communities”. Segregation and polarization in the cities is today the result of a free and politically uncontrolled play of market forces; if state policy makes its contribution, then it is only in the form of governmental refusal to be bothered with the responsibility for human welfare and its decision to “contract it out” to private capital.


[7] Choose the option which best completes the sentence in agreement with the text above.


Condensations of disprivileged and deprived people in certain areas of the city, not much differently from the case of the favelas (=shanty towns in Brazil),...


A) is a result of bad social policies of successive British governments


B) has been caused by nothing else but the price of housing


C) are due to be aided and abetted


D) creates locked-in areas of impoverished urban dwellers, so called “gated communities”


E) is contributed to by the trend of wealthier citizens to lock themselves up in the so called “gated communities”



Last but not least, and with a nod to the ”New Statesman’s” famous question: given that consumerism is so ingrained in post-modern society, are we all doomed?


A few months ago François Flahaut published a remarkable study of the idea of common good and the realities for which it stands (O? est passé le bien commun ?, Éditions Mille et une nuits, 2011). The major message of the new study, focused on the current shape of our radically “individualized” society, is that the idea of human rights is currently utilized to replace and eliminate the concept of “good politics” – whereas that idea, to be realistic, cannot but be founded on the idea of “common good”. Human coexistence and social life constitute common grounds to us all from which and thanks to which all cultural and social goods derive. Pursuit of happiness should for that reason focus on the promotion of experiences, institutions and other cultural and natural realities of life-in-common – instead of concentrating on indices of wealth, which tends to deform human togetherness into individual competitiveness and rivalry.


[8] Choose the option which best completes the sentence in agreement with the text above.


In his remarkable study O? est passé le bien commun?, François Flahaut


A) focuses on the promotion of experiences, institutions and other cultural and natural realities of life-in-common


B) suggests the concept of “good politics” is currently tending to be replaced and eliminated by the idea of human rights.


C) fails to concentrate on indices of wealth, which tends to deform human togetherness into individual competitiveness and rivalry


D) denies it is impossible to found the idea human rights on the idea of the “common good”


E) regards cultural and social goods as constitutional rights



Questions 9 – 19; READING PASSAGE 2

From: Societies Without Nuclear Families http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/2?cid=



  • Questions 9 - 16; 1 point per each correct answer

Although many preindustrial societies [9]….. nuclear families, a few societies studied by anthropologists have not had them. One of these was the Nayar in southwestern India, who [10]….. marriage and the nuclear family. A woman would have several sexual partners during her [11]….., but any man with whom she had children had no [12]….. toward them.

Despite the absence of a father, this type of family arrangement [13]….. to have worked well for the Nayar. Nuclear families are also mostly absent [14]….. many people in the West Indies. When a woman and man have a child, the mother takes [15]….. of the child almost entirely; the father [16]….. for the household but usually lives elsewhere.

nnn


[9] A) caring B) common C) featured D) most E) strong

[10] A) both B) aware of C) equal D) lacked E) unknown

[11] A) occurrence B) lifetime C)previous D) spouse E) practise

[12] A) awareness B) implied C) empowerment D) responsibilities E) sharing

[13] A) appear B) might C) possible D) scenario E) seems

[14] A) among B) issue C) matrimonial D) while E) yet

[15] A) beneficiary B) care C) strides D) superior E) victimise

[16] A) dwelling B) efforts C) important D) provides E) resides


  • Questions 17 - 19; 2 points per each correct answer

These examples do not invalidate the fact that nuclear families are almost universal and important for several reasons we explore shortly. But they do [17]…. can be achieved through other family arrangements. If that is true, perhaps the oft-cited concern over the “breakdown” of the 1950s-style nuclear family in modern America is at least somewhat undeserved. As indicated by the examples just given, children can and do [18]….. . To say this is meant neither to extol divorce, births out of wedlock, and fatherless families nor to minimize the problems they may involve. Rather it is meant simply to indicate that the nuclear family is [19]…..

nnn

A) expect to outlive at least one of their parents and thus essentially were


B) indicate that the functions of the nuclear family


C) in practice they are something of a historical rarity


D) not the only viable form of family organization


E) thrive without two parents

nnn

nnn

Answer key


1NG, 2T, 3F, 4T, 5T;


6D, 7E, 8B;


9C, 10D, 11B, 12D, 13E, 14A, 15B, 16D;


17B, 18E, 19D


Societies Without Nuclear Families


Although many preindustrial societies featured nuclear families, a few societies studied by anthropologists have not had them. One of these was the Nayar in southwestern India, who lacked marriage and the nuclear family. A woman would have several sexual partners during her lifetime, but any man with whom she had children had no responsibilities toward them. Despite the absence of a father, this type of family arrangement seems to have worked well for the Nayar (Fuller, 1976). Nuclear families are also mostly absent among many people in the West Indies. When a woman and man have a child, the mother takes care of the child almost entirely; the father provides for the household but usually lives elsewhere. As with the Nayar, this fatherless arrangement seems to have worked well in the parts of the West Indies where it is practiced (Smith, 1996).


These examples do not invalidate the fact that nuclear families are almost universal and important for several reasons we explore shortly. But they do indicate that the functions of the nuclear family can be achieved through other family arrangements. If that is true, perhaps the oft-cited concern over the “breakdown” of the 1950s-style nuclear family in modern America is at least somewhat undeserved. As indicated by the examples just given, children can and do thrive without two parents. To say this is meant neither to extol divorce, births out of wedlock, and fatherless families nor to minimize the problems they may involve. Rather it is meant simply to indicate that the nuclear family is not the only viable form of family organization (Eshleman & Bulcroft, 2010).